Table 4: Structure of the sets used for sensitivity analysis, Keukenmeid of Huishoudster,Er biedt zich aan tegen half September een net Meïsja in eeu kleiu gezin als Of 31 1 ook is zij niet ongenegen eene ziekelijke Dame op te passen. Different types of NER algorithms exist. En las últimas dos décadas, se han llevado a cabo variados esfuerzos para digitalizar textos, incluidos libros y periódicos, que son fuentes primarias en la mayoría de nuestras sociedades. The wealth of geographic information in such digital archives has not been used much, while they are very valuable for the study of cities. But because of the time and workforce needed for the data collection, these studies were limited to a very small number of cities or short periods of time. Afterwards, we present the tests that we did to have statistics on the accuracy of our method. By selecting newspapers according to this time dimension, we ensure that they had a sufficient diffusion to stay alive at least two decades consecutively. After that, type describes whether the city is mentioned in an article, an advertisement, some family announcements, or in the caption of an illustration. Atlas cartographiques du droit de lâenvironnement marin en Afrique de lâOuest. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/33747 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/cybergeo.33747, Department of Urbanism, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlandsa.firstname.lastname@example.org, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National Library of the Netherlands, The Hague, Netherlandswillemjan.email@example.com, Department of Urbanism, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlandse.firstname.lastname@example.org, Department of Urbanism, Delft University of Technology, Delft, NetherlandsSchool of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St Andrews; St Andrews, Scotlandm.email@example.com. The next three columns corresponds to the different steps of the place name identification. An attempt is made to identify the dynamics of urban systems during the historical process of their evolution. Jordanâs natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. Finally, freq indicates the number of times this combination occurred. Analyse des candidatures ratÃ©es puis rÃ©ussies de Paris et Tokyo, Mapping the lockdown effects in India: how geographers can contribute to tackle Covid-19 diffusion, Motion du comitÃ© de rÃ©daction de Cybergeo sur la future Loi de programmation pluriannuelle de la recherche (LPPR). 57 en M. L. Hazemijjer, wed. v. C. v. Hoek, 46 j., Hoogstraat 261. 8The following paragraphs detail and justify the choices that have been made to select the final corpus of 81 newspapers. The highlands of Ajlun, Irbid, Salt and â¦ 31 en E. v. Vollenho ven, jd. It necessitated three main steps. An early paper of Zipf (1946) used local newspapers to study the interactions between distant ‘communities’ and used this data in a gravity model. It produces the open access academic publishing portal OpenEdition.org â¦ the place where the news item is published), as well as the importance of the possible places. Encore un effort pour devenir territorialâ¦.. Que penser du sens donnÃ© Ã lâartificialisation et Ã la dÃ©sartificialisation des sols ? The woonplaatsen are used in the everyday language, they are the toponyms people include when writing down an address. Named entities can be locations, persons, organisations, dates, measures (money, weight, distance, percent…), etc. 29We then counted the number of true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives to derive precision and recall indices for our three periods of time. 10There are also important fluctuations in terms of number of publication of news items across the three centuries that are covered by the database (Figure 1). Michel J.-B., Shen Y. K., Aiden A. P., Veres A., Gray M. K., Team T. G. B., et al., 2011, "Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books", Science, Vol.331, No.6014, 176-182. Our objective is to look for macroscopic spatial trends in the way information is diffused and how this is changing over time. Figure 6: Information field extracted from 15 local newspapers. It allows to gain knowledge on the spatial organisation of territories through time. An illustration is made with the case of European cities between 1200 and 1990, using harmonised historical data bases. 25The column ppn corresponds to a unique identifier given to each newspaper title. 18Table 2 shows that the vast majority of city names is not ambiguous (86.4%) and does not require the use of NLP techniques. 57 en M. L. Hazemijjer, wed. v. C. v. Hoek, 46 j., Hoogstraat 261. CyberGeo 2019-20 Real-Time Journal Impact Prediction & Tracking 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 Journal Impact, History & Ranking The next variable, year, indicates the date. ISSN : 1278-3366 Linking ISSN (ISSN-L): 1278-3366 Key-title: Cybergeo Title proper: Cybergeo. More generally, the methodology proposed in this data paper is of interest for people working on extracting geographic information from unstructured text data. 46The digital archive of newspapers is accessible on the Delpher website (https://www.delpher.nl/). Table 4 shows the results of these two calculations for the three different periods. 22For cities with multiple names, multiple string queries via the SRU protocol were done. In this project, we have geocoded place names contained in a selection of 102 million news items to build origin-destination matrices with places mentioned in the news items (o) and places where the newspapers were issued (d) for 125 years (t). This operation could be done in a reasonable amount of time. The following period is a period of development of the press, that ends in a peak during the Second World War, a period were many anti- and pro-German newspapers were created, most of the anti-German being underground. A seminal study by Michel et al. En revanche, peu d’études se sont intéressées à la richesse de l’information géographique qui peut être extraite de ces archives. Other files are also included such as freq_count_corps.csv, that contains the total number of items published in each year for every newspapers, which allows for example to standardise the data. The application of these 4 criteria resulted in a sub-corpus of 81 newspapers that still cover an important part of the Delpher archive. In this example, we can see that, according to the first line of the table, Amsterdam was mentioned in 347 articles of De Maasbode, a Rotterdam newspaper, in 1871. Irbid is Jordanâs third largest town, after Amman and Zarqa, but its second largest urban area with nearly 600,000 inhabitants. 23 j., Pelikaanstraat 1. Quantitative analyses do not replace in depth readings, but they are a new way of looking at these sources and can reveal hidden patterns that appear only at the macroscopic scale. First off, simple maps show a general expansion in cities number and size of cities over time, â¦ As we are interested by the amount of non-local information received by urban dwellers, we decided to take this time mark as our starting point, because from this period, newspapers became the backbone of information diffusion in the Netherlands. Title: Cybergeo : revue européenne de géographie / European journal of geography. Researchers have shown that these massive digital archives can be used to identify macroscopic trends related to historical and cultural changes. The historiography of imperial Spain and of the Iberian-initiated first globalization has recently been renewed by the study of exchanges between Asia and America and of the Spanish Pacific. ", Journal of Informetrics, Vol.10, No.4, 1025-1036. The academic journal History of Communism in Europe (hce.iiccmer.ro) is edited by The Institute for the Investigation of the Communist Crimes and the Memory of the Romanian Exile. This can also be the case when a region and its most important city have the same name such as for Groningen and Utrecht. Table 5: Results of the precision and recall tests. They resulted in two files: one with the results of the data collection for the unambiguous city names (freq_count_STR.csv) and one for the ambiguous city names (freq_count_NER.csv). Created with the aim of encouraging the exchange of ideas, methods and results, it publishes in any european language. However, we did not apply any disambiguation algorithm as the 15 cities from the list have homonyms of much smaller size (Figure 4). 1 TRACES Laboratory, University of Toulouse, France; 2 â¦ Their Journals collection includes Caliban, Journal of Urban Research, and Cybergeo.While most of OpenEdition's content is Open Access, they have donated access to Freemium for Journals; an additional collection of 140 usually paywalled journals. G.Kapsenberg, jm. For example, in the case of the third row of Table 3, the string ‘Goes’ has been identified in the text of the news item, but the multiNER did not classify it as a place name, so it does not appear in the ‘NER result column’. We kept only the woonplaatsen with more than 10,000 inhabitants. Le cas de la Ville du rail Ã Nairobi, La place de lâespace proche dans lâÃ©volution des programmes de gÃ©ographie de lâÃ©cole Ã©lÃ©mentaire franÃ§aise de 1977 Ã 2015, EpistÃ©mologie, Histoire de la GÃ©ographie, Didactique, Delineating Russian cities in the perspective of corporate globalization: towards Large Urban Regions, Covid-19 in China: the pandemic exacerbates the speculative mechanism in residential real estate, Covid 19: renforcement du mÃ©canisme spÃ©culatif dans lâimmobilier rÃ©sidentiel en Chine. Carefully selecting the corpus can significantly reduce bias, and is necessary to create a dataset as representative as possible depending on the research question. Homonymy: several places can have similar names. More recently, a study on British newspapers has used more refined techniques such as Named-Entity recognition to study the content of a massive corpus of historical newspapers (Lansdall-Welfare et al., 2017). The very short lifespan of most of titles is consistent with the findings of Van Kranenburg et al. edited by Zanne Domoney-Lyttle and Sarah Nicholson.. 26The file for ambiguous place names is structured almost the same way. Uno de los casos cruciales para la comprensión de la dinámica urbana, corresponde contar con datos sobre la relación entre ciudades. Les Jeux Olympiques et Paralympiques Ã lâheure des villes globales. Between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, Transjordan was a marginal province of the Ottoman Empire with a local mode of governance. Studies applied to historical newspapers have shown that the level of performance of these algorithms can differ significantly (Ehrmann, Colavizza, Rochat, Kaplan, 2016; Mosallam, Abi-Haidar, Ganascia, 2014). We decided to look at the terms people use to say where they live because place names have a stronger inertia than the boundaries of local governments. FOLLOW US. 29 en A. F. v. Rjjn, jd. 12Cities can be defined according to many criteria, they can be continuous build-up areas, functional entities, designated by a certain level of urban functions or by administrative status. Such organisations would have been very difficult to identify considering the cross-temporal dimension. International, national and institutional contexts have led to redefine a projectâRedalyc.orgâthat began in 2003 and that has already fulfilled its original â¦ This special issue aims to explore, interrogate and reflect on the ways in which women are understood, contextualised and represented in the text of the Bible that has developed, in various ways, a foundational significance for Western culture. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cybergeo, the electronic European Journal of Geography, is intended to promote faster communication of research and greater direct contact between authors and readers.Created with the aim of encouraging the exchange of ideas, methods and results, it publishes in any european language. (Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague, The Netherlands), 43https://data.4tu.nl/articles/dataset/DIGGER_a_dataset_built_on_Delpher_the_digital_archive_of_historical_newspapers_of_the_National_Library_of_the_Netherlands/12709190, 44https://doi.org/10.4121/uuid:a14a1607-dafe-4a8a-aebc-d1c5cd66a588, 45This work is licensed under a Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. This index takes the following form: 31Where fn corresponds to the number of false negatives. This paper aims to analyse an experience of participatory mapping and digital innovation launched in 2018 in a slum in Cotonou (economic capital-city of the Benin Republic). RRAAIJ ENBRTNK, te Woerden. Au cours des deux dernières décennies, d’importants efforts de numérisation de textes anciens ont été entrepris, notamment de livres et de journaux qui constituent des sources très riches sur les sociétés qui les ont produites. 2Information circulation has been identified as a key factor in urban dynamics. For years, the main concern of the Ottoman Porte in Transjordan was to ensure the safety of the Hajj caravan by paying the Bedouin tribes of the regions it passed through (eg. 1We have designed DIGGER in order to study the evolution of the Dutch urban system by investigating information flows extracted from historical newspapers that go back to 1869. HYPOTHESES. For a maximum level of precision, it would have been necessary to develop a specific disambiguation algorithm that uses the sentence around the named entity, the metadata of the newspaper (i.e. The second one was to select a sample of places that are consistent in terms of scale, toponomy and definition. Allan Pred (1977) also used local newspapers from different American cities to measure the time it took for information to travel from one place to another. We decided to go for a mixed technique to retrieve the data on cities in a reasonable amount of time. A more extensive study on the diffusion of information between the Dutch cities and its evolution over time can be found in Peris et al. ), Advances in Data Mining. (submitted). Des chercheurs ont récemment montré que ces archives numériques massives peuvent être utilisées pour identifier des tendances macroscopiques en rapport avec des changements historiques et culturels. It shows potential land use in Jordan arising from the combination of soil types, rainfall and biogeography. L. Warande 106. We have applied four criteria in the selection of newspapers: the newspaper had to be issued after 1869; its publication place had to be in the Netherlands; the newspaper had to exist during at least two consecutive decades; and we dropped the many small newspapers that were published only during the Second World War. IncludeFile databases/openedition.txt This stanza was provided by the publisher and has not been tested by OCLC. Journal of Business Research, Elsevier (SSCI & Scopus, Fnege cat. En este artículo, presentamos DIGGER, una base de datos recientemente construida a partir de Delpher, la cual corresponde al archivo digital de periódicos históricos de la Biblioteca Nacional de Países Bajos. Schwartz T., 2011, "Culturomics: Periodicals Gauge Culture’s Pulse", Science, Vol.332, No.6025, 35-36. OpenEdition gathers OpenEdition Books, OpenEdition Journals, Hypotheses.org and Calenda, four platforms dedicated to electronic resources in the humanities and social sciences. Les données couvrant de longues périodes temporelles sont relativement rares pour l’étude des villes et pourtant essentielles à la compréhension du temps long de leurs dynamiques. The most important sources of errors leading to false positives are listed below. However, many efforts are being made by to constantly improve OCR quality. OpenEdition.org is a publisher of books and journals in the social sciences and humanities. Portail de ressources électroniques en sciences humaines et sociales, LâamÃ©nagement urbain public en AmÃ©rique du Nord. Cette base de données peut être utilisée pour analyser plus d’un siècle de développement du système urbain des Pays-Bas ainsi que pour l’étude de la diffusion des informations ou des biais spatiaux dans la couverture médiatique. 7The first important step in any quantitative study using a text archive is to select a relevant corpus. This threshold is often used by statistical agencies and scholars as the lower limit to define urban centres, and significantly reduces the number of places to query for. For these 274 cities, we performed SRU9 queries using city names as simple search terms to retrieve the relevant articles from the corpus. Lansdall-Welfare T., Sudhahar S., Thompson J., Lewis J., Team F. N., Cristianini N., 2017, "Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol.114, No.4, E457-E465. This dataset can be used to study the evolution of the Dutch urban system as well as aspects related to the spatial diffusion of information and geographical bias in media coverage. 24The different steps of the data collection are summarized in Figure 5. 29 en A. F. v. Rjjn, jd. Voir la notice dans le catalogue OpenEdition, Plan du site – Le projet scientifique – Qui sommes-nous ? In our case, defining our primary units of analysis is made difficult by the fact that the data collection is meant for a corpus that covers more than one century. ISSN electronic edition: 1278-3366. La revue Cybergeo est mise à disposition selon les termes de la Licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 3.0 non transposé. The metadata available in this title list are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license and under the "Licence Ouverte / Open licence". The Precision P corresponds to share of relevant instances among the retrieved instances, and can be defined as: 30Where tp corresponds to the true positives and fp to the false positives. Given the intimate connection of the most of these organisations with their place, one could argue that this is less a problem as news items using these organisation names will often be referring to something related to or happening in that place. Ce problème est prégnant pour les données sur les relations interurbaines, à l’échelle des systèmes de ville. Cybergeo se mobilise depuis sa crÃ©ation en 1996 dans le mouvement mondial de la Science Ouverte, qui ne portait pas encore son nom. H. Pootman van Oije, wedr. SUBSCRIBE to the OpenEdition Newsletter. Venloo , den 12 Maart 1S86. Créée en 1996, Cybergeo est en libre accès, ouverte largement sur la géographie et les sciences sociales, sans parti pris d'école ni de thématique. Figure 3: Comparison of two retrieving techniques for Best and Dordrecht. Publisher: UMR 8504 Géographie-cités Because of the considerable variability in the number of news items published in each newspaper we decided to plot the relative frequency of place-name mentions in comparison to the total number of news items published. Traductions locales dâun concept thÃ©orique, DiversitÃ© et enjeux territoriaux de la mise en art des espaces pÃ©riphÃ©riques dans le monde, Politique de conservation de la biodiversitÃ© et d'amÃ©nagement du territoireÂ : Ã©tat de l'art sur la mise en Åuvre de la Trame verte et bleue en France, âLa Voulzie Ã ParisâÂ : Ã©tude des oppositions Ã la dÃ©rivation des sources de la Voulzie Ã partir des discours de la presse Ã©crite (1885â1929), GÃ©oÃ©thique professionnelle, gÃ©oÃ©thique prescriptive et gÃ©oÃ©thique analytique. Table 2: Issues in city name recognition and their solution. OpenEdition Journal Title List | Complete List | OpenEdition format. If itâs not working â¦ 31 en E. v. Vollenho ven, jd. Huwelijks-Brieven en Verlovings-Circulaires worden gedrukt en spoedig afgeleverd, desverlangend geadresseerd ter drukkerij van het Nie uw sblad Goedkoop. Figure 2: Location of the 317 cities for which data is collected. 21In the case of organisations, we could not apply NER because we had an insufficient knowledge of the organisations using the city names from the list. NER was used only for ambiguous cases. Then, it presents issues in place names recognition and choices to deal with these issues. Neudecker C., Wilms L., Faber W. J., van Veen T., 2014, "Large-scale refinement of digital historic newspapers with named entity recognition", 16. Meijers E., Peris A., 2018, "Using toponym co-occurrences to measure relationships between places: review, application and evaluation", International Journal of Urban Sciences, 1-23. Portail de ressources électroniques en sciences humaines et sociales, Classification of issues in place name recognition, A trade-off between computation time and precision level, Application: The information field of 15 Dutch cities in 1871, http://statline.cbs.nl/Statweb/publication/?DM=SLNL&PA=81310ned&D1=0&D2=a&HDR=T&STB=G1&VW=T, https://github.com/PDOK/locatieserver/wiki/API-Locatieserver, http://www.cbgfamilienamen.nl/nfb/documenten/top100.pdf, https://nlp.stanford.edu/software/CRF-NER.shtml, http://polyglot.readthedocs.io/en/latest/, https://data.4tu.nl/articles/dataset/DIGGER_a_dataset_built_on_Delpher_the_digital_archive_of_historical_newspapers_of_the_National_Library_of_the_Netherlands/12709190, https://doi.org/10.4121/uuid:a14a1607-dafe-4a8a-aebc-d1c5cd66a588, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/docannexe/image/33747/img-1.png, http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/docannexe/image/33747/img-2.png, http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/docannexe/image/33747/img-3.png, http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/docannexe/image/33747/img-4.png, http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/docannexe/image/33747/img-5.png, http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/docannexe/image/33747/img-6.png, http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/docannexe/image/33747/img-7.png, http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/docannexe/image/33747/img-8.png, Licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 3.0 non transposé, Epistémologie, Histoire de la Géographie, Didactique, Catalogue des 552 revues. Investigadores, han demostrado que estos archivos digitales masivos, se pueden utilizar para identificar tendencias macroscópicas, relacionadas con cambios históricos y culturales. Cham, Springer International Publishing. 150,000 articles, of â¦ The two cities that were selected are Best, a small town close to Eindhoven which has a name that is a very common word in Dutch (the superlative of “better”, like in English), and Dordrecht, a bigger city in South-Holland which has a very low chance of having false positives. Diferentes estudios han resaltado la importancia de contar con datos en el largo plazo que permitan el estudio de las ciudades, no obstante, tales fuentes son relativamente escasas. "Social distance" is one of the most successful concepts in international sociology. This resulted in the presence of a lot of short lived newspapers only published during the Second World War (n=2139) that can be very interesting for historians interested in the war but less relevant for long term studies. Editors. NER is a subtask of Natural Language Processing (NLP) that aims to locate and classify entities from a given text into pre-defined categories. La science ouverte est une vraie rÃ©volution ! Pred (1971) defines information fields as the total array of non-local contacts of individual places. The only difference is that additional to the frequency returned by the simple string query, there is an extra column with the number of hits after performing NER on the individual articles returned after the first query: Table 4: Structure of the freq_count_ner.csv file. Bani Sakhr and â¦ 01/05/2020 Cybergeo Conversation Laisser un commentaire Partha Mukhopadhyay and Shamindra Nath Roy from the Centre for Policy Research co-authored this piece. We do not know the exact origins of the Nabataeans; they are a nomadic people from Arabia who settled in present-day Jordan between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. It deals with the entire range of â¦ Applications and Theoretical Aspects. 23 j., Pelikaanstraat 1. 32The results of this validation process show an overall very good accuracy of our algorithm in the identification of place names in raw data. OpenEdition brings together four platforms dedicated to electronic resources and academic information in the humanities and social sciences. Figure 1: News items per year in Delpher and in the sub-corpus. Description. 47This work was funded through a VIDI grant (452-14-004) provided by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), and through the researcher-in-residence program of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, the national library of the Netherlands. However, problems related to extracting spatial information from text where not addressed, including the variety of scales (an article can mention a street, a city, a country, etc.) The content of a digital archive might be influenced by many factors such as digitalization policies, projects targeting a specific part of the media landscape (a newspaper, a region or a time period) or copyrights issues.
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